Best Efforts, Commercially Reasonable Efforts, and Good Faith Efforts: How They Differ and How to Use Them Effectively

“Best efforts,” “commercially reasonable efforts,” and “good faith efforts” are three of the most common performance standards used in contracts. For example, Party A may agree to use best efforts to market Party B’s products; Party B may agree to use commercially reasonable efforts to complete a task; or both parties may agree to use good faith efforts to discuss additional business opportunities. Unlike objective performance measures, these three performance standards are highly subjective. What are “best” efforts? What is considered “commercially reasonable?” How do you define “good faith?” Many view these subjective performance standards to be three different levels of performance on a spectrum (good/better/best). However, this perception differs from the reality in the courts where definitions of these standards can differ significantly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

Parties find these subjective performance standards convenient where they can’t or do not want to be too specific or objective as to the level of performance required. Contract negotiations can get bogged down when one party insists on a subjective performance standard to which the other party is opposed. Where parties can’t fully agree, a slightly vague subjective standard can be used to “bridge the gap” and let the parties finalize contract terms. However, that’s just papering over a failure to achieve a true “meeting of the minds” on the terms of the agreement. A later disagreement in how to define and apply a subjective performance standard can lead to a foundering of the business relationship, a contract dispute, allegations of breach, and/or litigation or arbitration. Understanding the differences between these subjective performance standards, and knowing when and how to best use them, is therefore critical.

In this article I’ll talk through the commonly perceived differences between these three key subjective performance standards, and cover things to look out for when using these terms. I’ll also discuss why it is important to consider on a case-by-case basis whether including a specific definition for a subjective performance standard or using an objective performance measure may be a better approach.

Defining “best efforts,” “commercially reasonable efforts,” and “good faith efforts”

There is not a lot of case law, or consistency in case law, from which to draw definitions. In other words, there are no universally accepted definitions for these subjective performance standards. Here is how I differentiate them:

Things to consider and watch for when using these standards

Isn’t a “good faith efforts” standard already implied? US contract law has long provided that the performance of every contract is subject to an implied duty of good faith and fair dealing. Given this, every performance obligation in an agreement requires good faith efforts, unless a higher standard for a particular obligation is expressly stated in that agreement. Since good faith efforts is the default, is there any reason to expressly include good faith efforts in an agreement? Yes. A non-breaching party to a contract will want the ability to assert the strongest claims possible. Instead of having to rely on breach of an implied duty as the basis for a claim, a party may prefer to be able to claim a breach of the express terms of the contract as well. If “good faith efforts” are expressly stated, a party may have multiple causes of action in the event of a failure to meet those efforts. Also, as noted above, some courts have held that an express good faith efforts requirement should be interpreted as a higher performance standard.

Consider whether it makes sense to try to add boundaries to a “best efforts” obligation. If your company is on the performing side of a “best efforts” obligation that the other party will not agree to remove, one way to address the uncertainty and subjectiveness of the performance obligation is to “box it” with additional language that puts some boundaries around the obligation and defines which stones must be left unturned. For example, if XYZ asks for language stating “ABC will use best efforts to market XYZ’s product,” consider seeking a revision to “ABC will use best efforts to market XYZ’s product, provided such efforts will not require ABC to incur costs or expenses not expressly contemplated herein which in ABC’s reasonable judgment may negatively impact its business operations and operating results.” This revised language makes clear that in performing to the “best efforts” standard, ABC is not required to incur costs and expenses that could negatively impact it. ABC could also consider whether to add a lower standard to a “best efforts” clause, such as “reasonable best efforts” or “good faith best efforts,” which could lead to a court interpreting the language as a lower standard than best efforts and which ABC can argue more realistically characterizes the efforts to be expended in compliance with that performance obligation.

Avoid using qualifiers which can enhance, or muddy, a subjective performance standard. Consider avoiding adding qualifiers such as “all,” “every,” or “diligent” to a subjective standard e.g., “diligent good faith efforts,” “all commercially reasonable efforts,” or “commercially reasonable efforts to [do x] as soon as feasible.”  Qualifiers can add another layer of subjective complexity, and/or create a more onerous obligation than may have been intended. For example, if “commercially reasonable efforts” by definition does not require a party to leave no stone unturned and does not require continuous performance, requiring “all” or “diligent” commercially reasonable efforts may effectively convert it to a “best efforts” standard.

Subjective performance obligations may not play nicely with revenue recognition rules. Subjective performance standards like “best efforts,” “commercially reasonable efforts,” and “good faith efforts” may mean different minimum levels of effort to different parties. In order to evaluate performance under a contractual obligation, the parties must be able to (1) define the specific obligation to be performed, and (2) objectively measure whether that performance obligation has been satisfied. This is a core tenet of the new revenue recognition rules under ASC 606, which requires a contract to be broken into separate performance obligations so that revenue recognition occurs on a per-performance obligation basis when that performance obligation has been satisfied. Determining when a subjective performance obligation has been satisfied for ASC 606 purposes can be problematic as the parties may not agree when the obligation has been satisfied. It is advisable to try to use objective criteria, and not subjective performance standards, for performance obligations tied to revenue recognition.

Consider whether including a definition or an objective measure would work better

Parties should try to avoid ambiguity in contracts, and seek to use quantifiable and measurable obligations where possible. Using subjective performance standards such as “best efforts,” “commercially reasonable efforts,” and “good faith efforts” is often an easy way to agree on a performance obligation without being too specific on what level of effort is required to achieve it. There are times when using a minimum subjective standard instead of an objective one is a tactical approach in negotiation, such as where your company wants to be able to make an argument that its performance was sufficient without the need to demonstrate satisfaction of an objective measure.

> Consider using definitions. If you do use a subjective performance standard in an agreement, consider whether to include a definition of that standard in the agreement. By defining a standard such as “commercially reasonable efforts,” the parties are fencing in what is considered satisfactory performance of that standard, making it less subjective and easier to gauge performance if a dispute arises as to whether a party has satisfied the associated performance obligation.

> Consider whether an objective measure would work better. In a number of cases, an objective measure such as a maximum time period, a minimum required spend, a minimum number of generated leads or orders, or a minimum service level may make it easier for both parties to determine whether a party has minimally satisfied a performance obligation. Ask the other party what they would consider an acceptable result from the required efforts, and consider making that the contractual measure of minimum acceptable performance. For example, instead of saying that “ABC will use commercially reasonable efforts to generate sales leads during each term of the Agreement,” if the parties agree that 10 leads per year is the minimum acceptable performance, say “ABC will generate a minimum of ten (10) sales leads during each term of the Agreement.” If all ABC generates is 10 leads in a given year and the other party was hoping for more, the other party can choose to exercise its termination rights and find another partner.

Search your contracts and templates for subjective performance standards, and see if any can be replaced with objective measures – it could mean the difference in measuring satisfaction of performance obligations and avoiding costly contract disputes over subjective performance terms.

Eric Lambert has spent most of his legal career working in-house as a proactive problem-solver and business partner. He is a corporate generalist who specializes in transactional agreements, technology/software/e-commerce, privacy, marketing and practical risk management. Any opinions in this post are his own. This post does not constitute, nor should it be construed as, legal advice. He is a technophile and Internet evangelist/enthusiast. In his spare time Eric dabbles in voice-over work and implementing and integrating connected home technologies.

Aggregate Data Clauses – Accept or Push Back?

Before reflexively rejecting a vendor/provider’s aggregate data clause, determine whether pushing back is really necessary.

More than ever before, data is the driver of business. Companies are inundated with new data on a daily basis, which creates a number of business challenges. One of the more prominent challenges of late has been how best to protect data within a company’s infrastructure from inadvertent and improper access and disclosure. Another important challenge is how best to “mine” data sets through data analytics, the quantitative and qualitative techniques businesses use to analyze data in order to develop business insights, conclusions, strategies, and market trend data in order to provide guidance on operational and strategic business decisions. “Aggregate data” is key to data analytics; companies take existing data, anonymize it by removing any personal or other information that can be used to identify the source of the data, and aggregate it with other anonymized data to create a new set of data on which data analytics can be performed.

The strength of the conclusions and insights learned through data analytics is directly proportional to the amount of source data used. Aggregate data comes from two primary sources: (1) internal data sets within the company’s possession or control, such as transactional data, customer data, server data, etc.; and (2) external data sets such as free online databases of government data (e.g., US Census data) and data available from data brokers who have compiled aggregate data sets for purchase and use by businesses.

To ensure businesses have the right to use customer data in their possession for data analytics purposes, SaaS, cloud, software, and other technology agreements often contain an aggregate data clause. This clause gives a vendor/provider the right to compile, collect, and use aggregate data from customer information for the vendor/provider’s own business purposes. Many vendors/providers work hard to craft an aggregate data clause that fairly and adequately protects their data sources. Before reflexively rejecting a vendor/provider’s aggregate data clause, consider the analysis and questions in this article to determine whether pushing back is really necessary to protect your company’s interests.

The vendor/provider’s perspective

Customers often push back on aggregate data clauses for a variety of reasons, such as “it’s our policy not to give this right,” “why should you benefit from our data?” and “how can you guarantee someone won’t be able to figure out it’s us?” On the other side, a vendor or provider may argue that the aggregate data clause is a “table stakes” provision in their agreement. Under this argument, analytical data is used to generate macro-level insights which benefit both the vendor/provider and its customers, and as long as it is used in a way that does not identify a specific customer or client there is no potential harm to the customer in allowing its use for data analytics. Additionally, many vendors argue that the systems used to anonymize and aggregate data do not allow for exceptions on a per-customer basis. Additionally, vendors/providers often share insights and other conclusions drawn from data analytics with their customers and clients, e.g., through client alerts, newsletters, conferences, etc., and therefore clients benefit from allowing their data to be used in the vendor/provider’s data analytics efforts. Data analytics are often a critical part of a vendor/provider’s business plans and operations, and access to client data for analytics purposes is baked into the cost of using the service.

Is the aggregate data clause well-drafted and balanced?

Many vendors/providers take the time to craft an aggregate data clause that is fair and does not overreach. As long as the vendor/provider has protected the customer’s rights and interests in the underlying customer data, the use of a customer’s data for analytics purposes may be perfectly acceptable as a part of the overall contractual bargain between the parties. A well-drafted clause usually contains the following core provisions:

  • Grant of rights – A right for the vendor/provider to compile, collect, copy, modify, publish and use anonymous and aggregate data generated from or based on customer’s data and/or customer’s use of its services, for analytical and other business purposes. This is the heart of the clause. This clause gives the vendor/provider the right to combine aggregate data from multiple internal and external data sources (other customers, public data, etc.).
  • Protection of source data – A commitment that the customer will not be identified as the source of the aggregate data. While this is really restating that the data will be “anonymous,” some customers may want a more express commitment that the aggregate data can’t be traced back to them. I’ll talk more about this later in this article.
  • Scope of usage right – Language making clear either that the vendor/provider will own the aggregate data it generates (giving it the right to use it beyond the end of the customer agreement), or that its aggregate data rights take precedence over obligations with respect to the return or destruction of customer data. The common vendor/provider reason for this is that aggregate data, which cannot be used to identify the customer, is separate and distinct from customer data which remains the property (and usually the Confidential Information) of the customer under the customer agreement. Additionally, the vendor/provider often has no way to later identify and remove the aggregate data given that it has been anonymized.

Things to watch for

When reviewing an aggregate data clause, keep the following in mind:

Protection of the company’s identity. While language ensuring that a customer is not identified as the source of aggregate data works for many customers, it may not be sufficient for all. Saying a customer is not identified as the source of aggregate data (i.e., the vendor/provider will not disclose its data sources) is not the same as saying that the customer is not identifiable as the source. Consider a customer with significant market share in a given industry, or which is one of the largest customers of a vendor/provider. While the vendor/provider may not disclose its data sources (so the customer is not identified), third parties may still be able to deduce the source of the data if one company’s data forms the majority of the data set. Customers that are significant market players, or which are/may be one of a vendor’s larger clients, may want to ensure the aggregate data clause ensures the customer is not identified or identifiable as the source of the data, which puts the onus on the vendor/provider to ensure the customer’s identity is neither disclosed nor able to be deduced.

Ownership of aggregate data vs. underlying data. As long as the customer is comfortable that aggregate data generated from customer data or system usage cannot be used to identify or re-identify the customer, a customer may not have an issue with a vendor/provider treating aggregate data as separate and distinct from the customer’s data. Vendors/providers view their aggregate data set as their proprietary information and key to their data analytics efforts. However, a well-drafted aggregate data clause should not give the vendor/provider any rights to the underlying data other than to use it to generate aggregate data and data analytics.

Scope of aggregate data usage rights. There are two ways customer data can be used for analytics purposes – (1) to generate anonymized, aggregate data which is then used for data analytics purposes; or (2) to run data analytics on customer data, aggregate the results with analytics on other customer data, and ensure the resulting insights and conclusions are anonymized. Customers may be more comfortable with (1) than (2), but as long as the vendor/provider is complying with its confidentiality and security obligations under the vendor/provider agreement both data analytics approaches may be acceptable. With respect to (2), customers may want to ask whether the vendor/provider uses a third party for data analytics purposes, and if so determine whether they want to ensure the third-party provider is contractually obligated to maintain the confidentiality and security of customer data and if the vendor/provider will accept responsibility for any failure by the third party to maintain such confidentiality and security.

Use of Aggregate Data. Some customers may be uncomfortable with the idea that their data may be used indirectly through data analytics to provide a benefit to their competitors. It’s important to remember that data analytics is at a base level a community-based approach – if the whole community (e.g., all customers) allows its data be used for analytics, the insights and conclusions drawn will benefit the entire community. If this is a concern, talk to your vendor/provider about it to see how they plan to use information learned through analytics on aggregate data.

Duration of aggregate data clause usage rights. Almost every vendor/provider agreement requires that the rights to use and process customer data ends when the agreement terminates or expires. However, vendors/providers want their rights to use aggregate data to survive the termination or expiration of the agreement. A customer’s instinct may be to push back on the duration of aggregate data usage rights, arguing that the right to use aggregate data generated from the customer data should be coterminous with the customer agreement. However, if the data has truly been anonymized and aggregated, there is likely no way for a vendor/provider to reverse engineer which aggregate data came from which customer’s data. This is why many vendors/providers cannot agree to language requiring them to cease using aggregate data generated from a customer’s source data at the end of the customer relationship. One approach customers can consider is to ask vendors/providers when they consider aggregate data to be “stale” and at what point they cease using aged aggregate data, and whether they can agree to state that contractually.

Positioning an objection to the aggregate data clause. As noted earlier, the right to use data for analytics purposes is considered to be a cost of using a vendor/provider’s software or service and a “table stakes” provision for the vendor/provider, and the ability to use data for analytics purposes is already baked into the cost of the software or service. Some customers may feel this is not sufficient consideration for the right to use their data for analytics purposes. If that is the case, customers may want to consider whether to leverage an objection to the aggregate data clause as a “red herring” to obtain other concessions in the agreement (e.g., a price discount, a “give” on another contract term, or an additional service or add-on provided at no additional charge).

The GDPR view on use of aggregate data

The European Union’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which becomes effective on May 25, 2018, makes a significant change to the ability to use personal data of EU data subjects for analytics purposes. Under the GDPR, a blanket consent for data processing purposes is no longer permitted – consent to use data must be specific and unambiguous. Unfortunately, this directly conflicts with data analytics, as the ways a data set will be analyzed may not be fully known at the time consent is obtained, and there is no right to “grandfather in” existing aggregate data sets. Simply saying the data will be used for analytics purposes is not specific enough.

Fortunately, the GDPR provides a mechanism for the continued use of aggregate data for analytics purposes without the need to obtain prior data subject consent – Pseudonymization and Data Protection by Default. Pseudonymization and data protection principles should be applied at the earliest possible point following acquisition of the data, and vendors/providers must affirmatively take data protection steps to make use of personal data

  • Pseudonymization – Pseudonymization is a method to separate data from the ability to link that data to an individual. This is a step beyond standard tokenization using static, or persistent, identifiers which can be used to re-link the data with the data source.
  • Data Protection by Default – This is a very stringent implementation of the “privacy by design” concept. Data protection should be enabled by default (e.g., an option in an app to share data with a third party should default to off).


Data analytics is an important part of every company’s “big data” strategy.  Well-crafted aggregate data clauses give vendors and providers the ability to leverage as much data as possible for analytics purposes while protecting their customers.  While there are reasons to push back on aggregate data clauses, they should not result in a negotiation impasse. Work with your vendors and providers to come up with language that works for both parties.

Eric Lambert has spent most of his legal career working in-house as a proactive problem-solver and business partner. He is a corporate generalist who specializes in transactional agreements, technology/software/e-commerce, privacy, marketing and practical risk management. Any opinions in this post are his own. This post does not constitute, nor should it be construed as, legal advice. He is a technophile and Internet evangelist/enthusiast. In his spare time Eric dabbles in voice-over work and implementing and integrating connected home technologies.

6 Contract Templates Every Company Should Have at the Ready

One of my favorite sayings is “opportunity is equal parts luck and preparation.” In other words, being proactively prepared for an opportunity puts you in a better position to take advantage of one when it comes along. When a business opportunity arises that requires a contract or other legal document, being prepared includes having a well-written template ready to go. It can help avoid missing critical terms and points when rushing to draft a document for the opportunity, minimize the time and effort required to respond, and turn a “fire drill” into a routine but urgent request. Conducting business on a handshake agreement, or on a hastily drawn-up set of terms, to save time can backfire if the opportunity turns into a dispute. Having a well-drafted, legally binding agreement in place ensures the parties both understand their rights and obligations in connection with a business opportunity, and gives your company the protection it needs if and when the need arises.

Here are six contract templates every company should have drafted and ready for use when the opportunity arises. If your company does not have in-house counsel, consider whether having outside counsel prepare some or all of these templates for you is a worthwhile investment. If you have (or are) in-house counsel, check to ensure that you have up-to-date versions of these agreements in place. Consider whether to take this opportunity to freshen them up.

1) Mutual and unilateral NDA templates

Companies use non-disclosure agreements (aka “confidentiality agreements” or “NDAs”) for protective, contractual, and strategic purposes. NDAs ensure there are adequate (and binding) protections for your confidential information before you share it with another party. If your company has trade secrets, failing to put confidentiality obligations in place with third parties who have access to your trade secrets can cost you your trade secret protection. NDAs may also satisfy a contractual obligation to a third party (e.g., not to disclose a company’s confidential information unless the recipient is also subject to written confidentiality obligations). They can help ensure that a third party is truly interested and serious about discussions with your company. (I discussed the why, when and how of NDAs in depth in a previous LinkedIn article.) If your company and a prospective business partner want to “pull back the curtain” to share confidential information as part of discussions about a proposed relationship, you’ll want to have an NDA template ready for use.

Companies should have a minimum of two NDA template “flavors” at the ready – mutual (where both parties are providing confidential information to the other) and unilateral (where only your company is sharing confidential information). Use the template that best matches the actual disclosures occurring, and avoid putting a mutual NDA in place where you don’t expect (and don’t want) confidential information from the other party. For example, if you want to share financials and future business plans with a candidate for employment, a unilateral NDA is likely your best bet. Some companies use other flavors of NDAs as well (e.g., a specific version for M&A opportunities, one for interview candidates, etc.)

NDAs should also be drafted as fairly as possible – the last place you want to get bogged down in negotiation is over the NDA (tripping up your business discussions before they even start). Consider avoiding contentious language such as residuals clauses and first-party indemnities in your NDA templates. Also consider having your NDA template as a PDF with fillable form fields to minimize negotiation and simplify the process of completing the NDA.

2) Professional Services/Independent Contractor Agreement template

Every company, big and small, uses subcontractors, vendors and service providers (collectively, “contractors”). Contractors are often brought in where a company needs additional support or services its employees cannot provide (or want to outsource), where it needs subject matter expertise it does not have, or where it needs to temporarily augment its existing personnel or other resources. There are many benefits to using contractors, from avoiding the need to pay payroll-related costs to having the ability to “target” spend on subject matter expertise when needed. Having a written agreement in place with your contractors, and a template Independent Contractor Agreement (also called an “ICA” or “Professional Services Agreement”) ready for use, is critical to protect your company’s rights.

Most ICAs are a master set of terms governing each work engagement, and use “statements of work,” “work orders,” or “project assignments” for each discrete project (collectively, “SOWs”). Among other things, ICAs typically cover the scope of work performed; the independent contractor relationship between the parties (misclassification of independent contractors by companies is a current “hot button” issue for the IRS); testing, acceptance and ownership of deliverables; payment terms, expenses and taxes; representations, warranties and remedies around the work and/or deliverables; and insurance. SOWs generally include sections on the scope of services, in-scope and out-of-scope items, deliverables, timeline and milestones, fees (e.g., time and materials, not to exceed amount) and payment schedule, and change order procedure.

Companies may also want to consider using the core provisions of their ICA to create a set of “Vendor Terms & Conditions” that exist on a URL on the company’s domain. Companies can incorporate Vendor Terms & Conditions by reference into a vendor’s purchase order or invoice, with language ensuring a term in the Vendor Terms & Conditions governs over any conflicting terms in the vendor’s own terms, to avoid the need to negotiate every services order or contract. This can be a simple and cost-effective way to ensure a base set of standard risk allocation and other terms apply to each vendor even where the vendor spend or vendor size does not warrant the use of significant Legal or Procurement resources.

3) Employee Confidentiality and Inventions (and Non-Solicit and Non-Compete) Agreement and Employee Offer Letters

As a condition of employment, most companies require their employees (1) to maintain the confidentiality of the company’s confidential and proprietary information, and any similar information of the company’s clients, vendors and service providers, that the employee may receive or have access to during the term of his/her employment, and (2) to agree that the company owns any inventions or other “work product” created by the employee in connection with his/her employment. Some companies also require employees to agree, during the term of employment and for a period of time afterwards, not to solicit the company’s clients or employees, and/or to not compete with the company on behalf of another company (these are known collectively as “restrictive covenants”). To ensure these obligations are in place and legally enforceable, every company must have a well-drafted Employee Confidentiality and Inventions Agreement (or “ECIA”).

The ECIA is the type of agreement that is worth a little of outside employment counsel’s time to ensure it is both well-written and legally enforceable. If your company has offices or employees in multiple states, the laws around the enforceability of these types of agreements, especially restrictive covenants, differs widely. For example, in California, restrictive covenants are generally void, but in other states such as Minnesota, restrictive covenants can be enforceable if they are reasonable in time and scope and satisfy other legal requirements such as supported by consideration and supporting a legitimate employer interest. Consideration itself is an important consideration that varies from state to state — you may not be able to enforce a new (or updated) ECIA against existing employees unless it is supported by additional non-token consideration provided to the employee. Also, NDAs and partner agreements often require that a company only disclose the other party’s information to employees who have a need to know the information and are bound by written obligations of confidentiality to protect it, and a properly worded ECIA can satisfy this requirement.

Companies should also have well-drafted employee offer letters. The offer letter is signed by the company and agreed and acknowledged by the new employee, and contains both a summary of the employment terms and important protections for the company. A well-drafted and properly worded offer letter can help avoid later issues if there is dispute over terms such as the details of the employment offer or the employee’s conduct. Companies should have separate offer letter templates for exempt and non-exempt employees. Consider including, among other provisions, the start date; the title of the position and name/title of the supervising employee; the base salary and payment cycle; probation period language; information on vacation & holidays, benefits, and equity grants (if applicable); pre-employment screening requirements; and continuing obligations (e.g., there are no existing restrictive covenants that would prevent the candidate from working for the company; the candidate will not bring any confidential or proprietary data from a former employer onto company systems; etc.). Ensure the offer of employment is labeled “contingent” so that in the event of an issue, the applicant was not truthful on the employment application, you have the right to revoke it where allowed by law. Offer letters should also be reviewed by outside employment counsel to ensure they comply with the state laws applicable to your business.

4) Business Referral Agreement

Companies looking to grow their business may happen upon a person or company willing to refer potential clients to them (e.g., a company in a complimentary business whose clients may also be interested in your company’s products or services, or a person with deep connections in the industry who can facilitate introductions with executives at some of your company’s top sales targets), typically in return for a bounty per referral or a percentage of the fees earned by the company from the referred client. When a referral opportunity arises, have a business referral agreement template ready for use.

A business referral agreement typically covers the process of submitting a lead and any rights of the company receiving the lead (the “recipient”) to reject it; the time frame for the recipient to close a business transaction with the referred lead; the fees payable for referring the lead, and the payment frequency and terms; what assistance the referring company will provide to the recipient in closing the business (if any); and audit rights to ensure the referral fees paid are accurate.

As with NDAs, consider having both a mutual referral template (where both parties are referring leads to the other) and a unilateral template (where a party is referring leads to your company only).

5) Letter of Intent/Term Sheet/Memorandum of Understanding

When negotiating a new business opportunity, there is often pressure to get something on paper as quickly as possible, even before the deal is fully negotiated. One way to do this is through a letter of intent (also called an “LOI” or “term sheet”) or memorandum of understanding (“MOU”). A LOI or MOU can act as a “snapshot in time” of the anticipated terms of the definitive agreement as of that date, highlighting both where the parties have already come to agreement and where further negotiation is needed. If done incorrectly, a LOI thought to be non-binding by one party could be held to be a legally enforceable agreement. Having a properly worded LOI or MOU template at the ready can help evidence the parties’ intent to move forward with negotiations and ensure they keep the focus on finalizing the terms for, and negotiations on, a definitive agreement, while protecting your company’s rights to walk away if a definitive agreement cannot be reached.

A LOI and MOU differ primarily in form: a LOI is typically in the form of a letter, where a MOU is typically in the form of a legal agreement. LOIs and MOUs typically include terms that can be grouped into two sections:

  • Non-binding terms. These are a summary of the terms that the parties intend, as of the date of the LOI or MOU, to include in the definitive agreement. When putting non-binding terms into a LOI or MOU, consider using non-binding terms such as “would,” “should,” and “may” instead of “will” and “shall.” Also consider a catch-all provision stating that all obligations in the non-binding section are prospective only and will not apply to the parties unless and until embodied in a definitive agreement to be negotiated and signed by both parties.
  • Binding terms. Many people believe that a LOI or MOU is completely non-binding, but that’s almost always not the case. The most common binding term is a commitment by both parties to continue negotiating in good faith toward a definitive agreement, and a statement that either party may cease negotiations at any time. Other binding terms to consider for your LOI or MOU include exclusivity or standstill obligations (e.g., the parties will negotiate exclusively with the other for a period of X months); confidentiality obligations or a reference to the existing NDA in place between the parties; non-solicitation obligations; and general legal boilerplate such as choice of law and an integration clause. Also include a statement that except for any binding terms, the LOI or MOU does not create (and is not intended to create) any binding or enforceable agreement or offer. Ensure the binding and non-binding terms are in separated sections.

I prefer to use a letter of intent when it’s non-binding (e.g., as a term sheet), with our without a commitment by the parties to continue negotiating in good faith. I use a memorandum of understanding when summarizing non-binding deal terms coupled with binding obligations. Whether you use a LOI or MOU, ensure it is signed by both negotiating parties.

6) Settlement and Release Agreement

Sooner or later, your company will have a dispute with a client, customer or vendor over fees, performance of obligations, use of deliverables, etc. Most often, business disputes are resolved by the parties without the need for formal dispute resolution such as mediation, arbitration, or litigation. When a dispute is resolved, it can be important to have a settlement template ready to memorialize the parties’ full and final resolution of the dispute, and to state any obligations the parties have to each other in connection with the resolution of the dispute. Without a well-written and legally enforceable settlement and release agreement, the parties may find that the settlement of a dispute is not as full or final as originally thought if one of them seeks to enforce the settlement terms.

Settlement templates generally include a description of the dispute being settled; the consideration to resolve the dispute (e.g., waiving certain accounts receivables, payment of an amount by one party to another) and any contingencies (e.g., payment must be received within 10 days); a release by both parties of any claims related to the dispute (ensuring this is properly worded is one of the most critical parts of the settlement agreement); confidentiality language; a non-disparagement clause if appropriate; and other appropriate legal boilerplate. There are state-specific requirements for settlement and release agreements, so consider having local counsel review your template to ensure it will be enforceable.

The easiest settlement agreement template to have at the ready can be used for the resolution of run-of-the-mill business disputes such a billing dispute. For significant or complex disputes or settlements to resolve pending or threatened litigation/arbitration and releases in cases of employee terminations, consult an attorney to ensure your template fully and completely covers the complexities or nuances of the specific case.

Eric Lambert is Assistant General Counsel and Privacy Officer at CommerceHub, a leading cloud services provider helping retailers and brands increase sales and delight shoppers through supply solutions to expand product assortment, demand solutions to promote and sell products on the channels that perform, and delivery solutions to enable rapid, on-time customer delivery. Any opinions in this post are his own. This post does not constitute, nor should it be construed as, legal advice. Eric works primarily from his home office outside of Minneapolis, Minnesota. He is a technophile and Internet evangelist/enthusiast. In his spare time Eric dabbles in voice-over work and implementing and integrating connected home technologies.

Don’t Overlook These 6 Important Contract Clauses

Managing the review and negotiation of contracts involves regular stack ranking of projects. With many agreements to review and other job responsibilities for both in-house counsel and business counterparts alike, the value or strategic importance of the agreement often determines the amount of attention it receives. Given this, attorneys and their business counterparts generally do not have time for a “deep dive” into every nook and cranny of an agreement under negotiation. They focus their available resources on the big-ticket items — obligations of the parties, termination rights, ownership, confidentiality, indemnification/limitation of liability, and the like — and may only have time for a cursory review (at best) of other contract terms that appear in most agreements, called the “legal boilerplate.”

If you have a little extra time to spend on an agreement, here are six clauses that are worth a closer review. Why these? If worded improperly, each of these clauses can have a significant adverse impact on your company in the event of an issue or dispute involving that clause.

(1) the Notices clause. Failure to provide timely notice can case major issues. So can failing to receive a notice that was properly served. If mail can take some time to be routed internally, consider avoiding certified or first-class mail as a method of service. Personal delivery and nationally or internationally recognized express courier service (FedEx, UPS, DHL, etc.) with signature required on delivery are always good choices. Notice by confirmed fax or by email to a role address (e.g., “”) are also options to consider, either as a primary method of notice or as a required courtesy copy of the official notice. Use a role and not a named person in the ATTN: line – if the named person leaves, routing of the notice may be delayed. Consider requiring that a copy of every notice be sent to your legal counsel. Consider whether to make notice effective on delivery, versus effective a fixed number of days after sending (whether or not actually received). It is also worth considering making notice effective on a refused delivery attempt – the other side should not be able to refuse a package to avoid being served with notice. Ensure delivery is established by the delivery receipt or supporting records.

(2) the Dispute Resolution clause. Ensure the agreement’s dispute resolution mechanism (litigation vs. arbitration), and any dispute escalation language, is right for your company given the potential claims and damages that could come into play if you have a dispute. Make sure you’re OK with the state whose law governs the agreement (and ensure it applies without regard to or application of its conflicts-of-laws provisions). If neither home state law is acceptable, consider a “neutral” jurisdiction with well-developed common law governing contracts e.g., New York. Ensure you’re OK with the venue — consider whether it is non-exclusive (claims can be brought there) or exclusive (claims can only be brought there), and whether a “defendant’s home court” clause might be appropriate (a proceeding must be brought in the defendant’s venue). Finally, ensure the parties’ rights to seek injunctive relief — an order to stop doing something, such as a temporary restraining order or injunction, or an order to compel someone to do something — are not too easy or hard to obtain. In some cases, whether a party needs to prove actual damages or post a bond in order to obtain an injunction can play a critical role.

(3) the Order of Precedence clause. If your agreement has multiple components (e.g., a master services agreement, separate Terms and Conditions, incorporated policies from a web site, service exhibits or addenda, statements of work, project specifications, change orders, etc.), which piece controls over another can become critically important if there is a conflict between the two (e.g., liability is capped in Terms and Conditions, but unlimited in a Statement of Work). Ensure the order of precedence works for you. Consider whether to allow an override of the order of precedence if expressly and mutually agreed to in an otherwise non-controlling contract component. Don’t forget about purchase orders — they often have standard terms which can conflict with or override the contract terms unless they are specifically excluded. If you are negotiating a SaaS agreement, consider how acceptable use policies, terms of use, and other online policies may relate to the agreement. Watch out for other agreements/terms incorporated by reference, or on the other hand, consider incorporating your standard terms and having them control in the event of conflicting terms.

(4) the Assignment/Change of Control clause. If consent to assignment or a change of control is required, the clause can create significant headaches and delays during an M&A closing process or during a corporate reorganization. A client or vendor with “veto power” could leverage that power to get out of the contract, or to obtain concessions/renegotiated terms. Consider whether to include appropriate exclusions from consent in the event of a reorganization or change of control, but keep a notice requirement. Consider whether a parental guaranty is an appropriate trade-off for waiving consent. Also consider whether consent is needed in a transaction where the party continues to do business in the same manner it did before (e.g., change of control of a parent company only).

(5) the Subcontractor clause. Ensure you have approval rights over subcontractors where necessary and appropriate, especially if they are performing material obligations under the agreement or will have access to customer data or your systems. A service provider may not be willing or able to give an approval right to a subcontractor providing services across multiple clients, but may be OK with approval of a subcontractor providing services exclusively or substantially for your company. Include the ability to do due diligence on the subcontractor; remember that subcontractors can be an attack route for hackers seeking to compromise a company’s network. Ensure a party is fully liable for all acts and omissions of the contractor. Consider pushing security obligations through to the subcontractor. Require subcontractors to provide phishing training.  Consider limitations on what obligations of the other party can be subcontracted.

(6) the Non-Solicitation clause. Consider limiting a non-solicitation clause to those employees key to each party’s performance under the agreement, and other named personnel such as executive sponsors or corporate officers. Most often, neither party can live up to a clause that covers every employee at the company. Ensure there are appropriate exclusions for responses to job postings, recruiter introductions, and contact initiated by the covered party. Consider whether the clause prevents soliciting an employee as well as hiring them, and whether you want to restrict one or both.

Six Tips for Working Efficiently and Effectively With Your Attorney in Contract Negotiations

Some people dread having to go to their legal counsel with a contract for review and negotiation.  “It’s the department of business prevention”; “we’ll never get it done”; “my attorney doesn’t understand what the business needs.”  Quite the contrary. In-house counsel want to partner with you to facilitate the company’s business objectives and help the company succeed, while at the same time managing risk to our client – the company. Ensuring you and your attorney work together as effectively and efficiently as possible is key to this process.  Here are 6 tips to keep in mind when working with your attorney in contract negotiations.

  1. Contract negotiation is a partnership, not a handoff. Contracts contain both legal and business terms. We will largely defer to you on the business terms (unless it’s something we’ve seen before that we know is a problem), and will focus on ensuring the legal terms are in order. You need to be a part of the negotiation process to provide guidance and approvals on business terms as they are negotiated.  If you submit a contract for review and then just wait for an email saying it’s done and signed, it will slow down the process as we’ll have to reach out to you, or worse, make assumptions about what your business needs are or what you are OK agreeing to in the contract.
  1. Negotiations can take time – don’t wait until the last minute to engage Legal. Negotiations can take time, but attorneys don’t want to drag them out – we have a lot of work on our plate, and we want to enable you to start working with the company or vendor so you can meet our corporate objectives. However, part of our job is also to negotiate terms that protect the company, and to help you navigate around the pitfalls and mountains.  If you come to us at the last minute and there are major issues (e.g., risks we can’t accept without high level approval), it’s a no-win situation – we feel you’re not giving us time to do our job as attorneys, you’re unhappy because the agreement can’t get done by your desired completion date, your boss is unhappy because you missed your deadline, others whose work depends on the negotiated partnership or vendor relationship are negatively affected, etc.

Build time for the legal review process into your project timeline, and if you’re unsure ask your attorney how much time they think it will take before you even get to the contract phase.   Engage Legal with questions on business terms or legal terms early in the process if it will help streamline the negotiation later on — we can help you structure business terms up front while they are being negotiated, to make the negotiation process go more smoothly.

  1. Provide complete business terms when you submit your contract request. Unless you are requesting a standard form agreement on your company’s paper, we need to know as much detail on the business terms as you can provide when you submit a contract request to Legal. Otherwise, we may have to make assumptions about what you’re looking for, and if we’re wrong it will mean redrafting work which will slow down the process. If you have a term sheet, attach it. If not, summarize the business terms in the request with as much detail as you can provide.  Include the full legal name of the other party, and their street address.  We’ll call you to flesh out any terms on which we have questions or need more information or detail.  Also, read the draft carefully before you forward it to the other side.  If the contract doesn’t match the business terms that were discussed, we’ll stumble right out of the gate on the contract negotiation.
  1. When you get a draft or get back redlines, add your comments on the business terms before submitting it to Legal.  If you send a draft on the other side’s paper or you receive redlines from the other side, go through it before you send it to Legal and mark it up with your comments and edits to any business terms.  If you need to reach out to internal business owners for their input or approval (e.g., Finance on payment terms, IT on SLAs, etc.), either do it before sending the draft to Legal, or indicate in the draft that you’re following up on an open business point before you send it to Legal.  Otherwise, the internal discussion draft you get from Legal will just include notes on where you need to provide input on business terms, slowing down the process.
  1. Listen to your lawyer’s suggestions – we’ve done this before. We have been in many contract negotiations, and have seen most contract provisions before.  We often know what provisions work with the company’s internal processes and requirements, and how third parties are likely to negotiate and come out on a given provision. If you come in with a business term or a position on an open point that we think may be a tough sell to the other party or is “out of the box” from an internal process perspective, our experience can help you avoid going down dark alleys or dead ends in the negotiation.  Good attorneys don’t just spot problems, but also offer alternatives to try to find a workable solution.  We may be able to offer an alternative provision or wording that meets your business needs, works for the other party, and satisfies your internal processes.

Attorneys usually have a sense as to which approach to contract negotiation (exchanging redlines right away, hopping on a call with the other side right away, exchange redlines first then get on a call, etc.) will be most effective for a particular contract or third party.  Your instinct may be to jump on a call with the other side as soon as you send or receive a draft, but in some cases that may end up unintentionally slowing down the negotiation. Tech-savvy attorneys may also suggest leveraging technological tools to increase speed and efficiency, e.g., WebEx online conferencing to make edits to the draft in real-time as if all parties are sitting in a conference room together.

  1. Attorneys will advise on the risks and share their opinion, but the business needs to “call the ball.” Every contract involves risks and rewards.  My job is to shift as much risk as I can (e.g., through contract terms), and to help explain how to mitigate risks (e.g., through internal process or procedure to control it).  Any remaining risk needs to be accepted (we understand but the benefits are worth it) or rejected (the benefits aren’t worth it) by the business.  Unless something is illegal or there’s simply too much pure legal risk to proceed, the attorney isn’t the one who should be making that risk decision.  We may share our opinion, but we can’t make the decision.  You (or someone higher up in the company) needs to make the risk decision after weighing the pros and cons.  If no one wants to be the decision-maker, the negotiation will grind to a halt.